Further Reading

About pH

The simple definition: pH is a logarithmic measure of hydrogen ion concentration, as originally defined by Danish biochemist Soren Peter Lauritz Sorensen in 1909,

pH = -log[H+]

where log is a base-10 logarithm and [H+] is the concentration of hydrogen ions in moles per liter of solution. According to the Compact Oxford English Dictionary, the 'p' stands for the German word for 'power', potenz, so pH is an abbreviation for 'power of hydrogen'.The pH scale was defined because the enormous range of hydrogen ion concentrations found in aqueous solutions make using H+ molarity awkward. For example, in a typical acid-base titration, [H+] may vary from about 0.01 M to 0.0000000000001 M. It is easier to write 'the pH varies from 2 to 13?.

The hydrogen ion concentration in pure water around room temperature is about 1.0 x 10-7 M. A pH of 7 is considered 'neutral', because the concentration of hydrogen ions is exactly equal to the concentration of hydroxide [OH-] ions produced by dissociation of the water. Increasing the concentration of hydrogen ions above 10 x 10-7 M produces a solution with a pH of less than 7, and the solution is considered 'acidic'. Decreasing the concentration below 10 x 10-7 M produces a solution with a pH above 7, and the solution is considered 'alkaline' or 'basic'.

pH is often used to compare solution acidities. For example, a solution of pH 1 is said to be 10 times as acid as a solution of pH 2, because the hydrogen ion concentration at pH 1 is ten times the hydrogen ion concentration at pH 2. This is correct as long as the solutions being compared both use the same solvent. You can’t use pH to compare the acidities in different solvents because the neutral pH is different for each solvent.

For example; the concentration of hydrogen ions in pure ethanol are about 1.58 x 10-10 M, so ethanol is neutral at pH 9.8. A solution with a pH of 8 would be considered acidic in ethanol, but basic in water!

pH and Water

Among the people who question the validity of water with an alkaline pH, the biggest question is, 'What happens to the alkaline water once it reaches the stomach, which is highly acidic?' People, who have some knowledge of the human body, including medical doctors, ask this question. In order to digest food and kill the kinds of bacteria and viruses that come with the food, the inside of our stomach is acidic. The stomach pH value is maintained at around 4. When we eat food and drink water, the pH value inside of the stomach goes up. When this happens, there is a feedback mechanism in our stomach to detect this and commands the stomach wall to secrete more hydrochloric acid into the stomach to bring the pH value back to 4. So the stomach becomes acidic again.

A pathologist was reported giving the following explanation. There is no hydrochloric acid pouch in our body. If there were, it would burn a hole in our body. The cells in our stomach wall must produce it on an instant or as-needed basis. The ingredients in the stomach cell that make hydrochloric acid (HCI) are carbon dioxide (CO2), water (H2O), and sodium chloride (NaCl) or potassium chloride (KCl).

NaCL + H2O + CO2 = HCl + NaHCO3, or

KCl + H2O + CO2 = HCl + KHCO3

As we can see, the byproduct of making hydrochloric acid is sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) or potassium bicarbonate (KHCO3), which goes into blood stream. These bicarbonates are the alkaline buffers that neutralize excess acids in the blood; they dissolve solid acid wastes into liquid form. As they neutralize the solid acid wastes, extra carbon dioxide is released, which is discharged through the lungs.

By looking at the pH value of the stomach alone, it seems that water with an alkaline pH never reaches the rest of the body. The body's cells are slightly alkaline. In order for them to produce acid, they must also produce alkaline, and vice versa; just as a water ionizer cannot produce alkaline water without producing acid water; since tap water is almost neutral.

When the stomach pH value gets higher than 4, the stomach knows what to do to lower it. However, if the pH value goes below 4, for any reason, the stomach doesn’t know what to do. In this case, hydrochloric acid is not produced by the stomach wall; therefore, no alkaline buffer is being added to the blood stream.

Let us give you another example of a body organ that produces acid in order to produce alkaline. After the food in the stomach is digested, it must come out to the small intestine. The food at this point is so acidic that it will damage the intestine wall. In order to avoid this problem, the pancreas makes alkaline juice, known as pancreatic juice. This juice is sodium bicarbonate, and is mixed with the acidic food coming out of the stomach. From the above formula, in order to produce bicarbonates, the pancreas must make hydrochloric acid, which goes into our blood stream.

We experience sleepiness after a big meal (not during the meal or while the food is being digested in the stomach) when the digested food is coming out of the stomach; that’s the time when hydrochloric acid goes into our blood.

Alkaline or acid produced by the body must have an equal and opposite acid or alkaline produced by the body; therefore, there is no net gain. However, alkaline supplied from outside the body, like drinking water with and alkaline pH results in a net gain.

Please note: pH test strips do not accurately measure the pH in Real Water. Real Water is so pure with very low total dissolved solids (tds) that it does not react with the pH paper medium. For an accurate test use the pH liquid test solution or a properly calibrated pH meter.

About Oxidation Reduction Potential (ORP)

Oxidation Reduction Potential (ORP) is a measurement in millivolts (mV) of the tendency or the strength that indicates whether a solution is oxidizing or deducing/deoxidizing.

Any positive number indicates that the solution is oxidizing; the higher, the more oxidizing. The same theory applies on the negative side, just in the opposite direction; the lower, the more deoxidizing. Any negative number indicates a reducing or deoxidizing tendency.

When chemists first used the term "oxidation" in the late 18th Century it meant "to combine with oxygen." Back then oxidation was a pretty radical concept. Until about 200 years ago, folks were really confused about the nature of "matter." We have learned much since then, for instance, it took some pretty brave chemist to prove that fire did not involve the release of an unknown or mysterious substance, but occurred when oxygen combined with what was being burned.

We can see examples of oxidation all the time in our daily lives. They occur at the different speeds. When we see a piece of iron rusting, or a slice of apple turning brown, we are looking at examples of relatively slow oxidation. When we look at fire, we are witnessing an example of rapid oxidation. We now know that oxidation involves an exchange of electrons between two atoms. The atom that loses an electron in the process is said to be "oxidized". The atom that gains and electron is said to be "reduced" and loses the electrical energy that makes it "hungry" for more electrons.

We also know that matter can be changed but not destroyed. You can either alter its structure and increase or decrease the amount of energy it contains, but you cannot eliminate the basic building blocks that make things what they are.

Chemicals like Chlorine, Bromine, and Ozone are all oxidizers. These chemicals have the ability to oxidize by stealing electrons from other substances, making them good water sanitizers because when you alter the chemical makeup of unwanted plants or animals, it kills them and "burns up" the remains, leaving a few harmless chemicals as by-products. In the process of oxidizing, these oxidizers are reduced (picked up an extra electron) and lose their ability to further oxidize anything. They may combine with other substances in the water or their electoral change may simply be "used up". To make sure the chemical process continues to the very end, you must have a high enough concentration of an oxidizer in the water to do the whole job.

Many foods and beverages are highly oxidized and devoid of electrons. Consuming oxidized foods and beverages tend to unfavorably affect the chemical characteristics of body fluids. Likewise, addition to one’s diet of negative hydrogen ions, which are found to be especially high in organically grown vegetables, tends to affect the body fluids in a favorable manner. Naturally, Oxidation Reduction Potential (ORP) value varies widely between different foods and beverages.

Considering you want to avoid oxidizing your body internally as much as possible, it is important to make a constant effort to eat and drink foods and beverages that have an ORP value on the negative side. Unfortunately, the majority of what we eat and drink has positive ORP values, often quite high.

Free Radicals

Most people have heard about antioxidants, but most people don’t fully understand the term oxidation. The process of oxidation starts with the air you breathe. Each oxygen atom has a nucleus in the center with tiny electrons circling around it like satellites orbiting the earth. Any atom that has eight electrons in its outer orbit is stable, but oxygen has only six. Therefore, it is very unstable and it needs two more electrons to stabilize it. When oxygen comes into contact with other atoms, it may steal two electrons from them, a fire like reaction that releases heat energy. Or the oxygen atom may simply attach itself to one or more atoms to share electrons, as it does with hydrogen to make water (H20) or carbon to make CO2. Either way, this is called "oxidation". For example, oxygen burns the wood in a fireplace by capturing its electrons and releasing heat energy into the room. In the body, oxygen captures electrons from the digested food releasing energy for all the activities in the body. What remains after oxidation? In the fireplace, oxidation of the wood hydrocarbons produces CO2, which floats up the chimney, and leaves carbon ashes on the floor. In the body, oxidation of food molecules produces CO2, which is exhaled but the "ashes" remain in the body as electron-deficient molecules called "free radicals". They roam through the body attempting to replace their missing electrons by stealing electrons from vital cells and causing damage that usually disables their ability to reproduce as healthy normal cells.


Many scientists agree that oxidized compounds wrinkle the skin, damage internal organs, damage DNA and contribute to the signs and symptoms of early aging. The natural way to resist oxidized damage is to provide the body with antioxidants, some of which the body makes, some are consumed, and others may be supplemented. The essential function of an antioxidant is to supply electrons to electron-deficient free radicals so they no longer steal electrons from vital cells.